William

William Henry Roll


Welcome to the new and improved Roll Family Windmill website! We have upgraded our authoring tools to design and create content and present it to you with style. We will be better able to maintain content and share information about the genealogy of the Roll and allied families.


They shall grow not old, as we that are left grow old: Age shall not weary them, nor the years condemn. At the going down of the sun and in the morning, We will remember them. --Laurence Binyon,"Ode of Remembrance"


I have gathered a posie of other men's flowers, and nothing but the string that binds them is mine own. --Michel Eyquem de Montaigne


Documenting your family history is a lifelong pursuit, a task of pleasure and research that is never completely finished.


Not to know one's ancestors, is to be a tree without roots, a stream without a source. --Kung-fut-se


The wind whispers through the trees, recalling words and dreams and memories of those who left us long ago. --Unknown


St. Basil of Caesarea, born about 330 A.D., said, "A tree is known by its fruit; a man by his deeds. A good deed is never lost; he who sows courtesy reaps friendship, and he who plants kindness gathers love."



WeRelate.com

This website was created the old-fashioned way; it has been hand coded.



keep calm



Interpreting Roman Numerals
A Refresher Course

Roman numerals helped kill the Roman Empire; now they're killing us.

Genealogists encounter Roman numerals in dates and in pagination. This review will cover only Roman numerals less than MMM (3,000.)

MDCCCLXXXVI

What does it mean?

There are seven letters used in modern Roman numerals:

For numbers less that 3,000

I

means

1

V

means

5

X

means

10

L

means

50

C

means

100

D

means

500

M

means

1000

Some Roman numerals can be doubled, tripled, or quadrupled.

XX

means

20

XXX

means

30

CC

means

200

MM

means

2,000

Sometimes lower case letters are used for pagination: i, v, x, l, c, d, and m.

Fragments of the Roman system of numerals survive in modern times, as in the expression "C note" meaning a one hundred dollar bill.


X banknote

Roman numerals are sometimes used on modern banknotes. The obverse of this ten dollar note has a border of Xs, the Roman numeral for ten, and a prominant X is displayed on the reverse where the field is filled with Xs.



XX banknote

The Roman numeral XX is prominently displayed on the obverse of this twenty dollar banknote.


The Subtraction Rule

If you use the charts below, you will not have to remember the rule

There is only one rule to remember, and that is that identical letters are only repeated three times in succession. To avoid four identical letters in succession, subtraction is used. The rule for subtraction is that if a letter is preceeded by a letter with a lesser value, the first is subtracted from the second.

IV

means

4

(5-1=4)

IX

means

9

(10-1=9)

XL

means

40

(50-10=40)

XC

means

90

(100-10=90)

CD

means

400

(500-100=400)

CM

means

900

(1000-100=900)

For example, to translate the Roman numeral XXXIII, find it on the chart (green). The translation is the sum of Arabic numeral at the top of the column, 30 (blue), and the Arabic numeral at the left of the row, 3 (red). XXXIII means 33. Notice that there is no Roman numeral for the value zero.

Sometimes this rule was not followed, so you will see four letters repeated in succession, such as IIII for four or MCCCC for one thousand four hundred.


Numerals 1 to 99


Roman numeral chart

caption text



Numerals 100 to 2,999

To create numbers in the 101 to 2,999, concatenate the following letters with the appropriate letters from the chart above.


Roman numeral 100s

Roman numeral 100s



Examples Converting from Roman to Arabic Numerals

DCCCLXIX
DCCC LX IX (break into levels of 1000s, 100s, 10s, and 1s)
DCCC means 800
LX means 60
IX means 9
800+60+9=869

CMLXIV
CM LX IV (break into levels of 1000s, 100s, 10s, and 1s)
CM means 900
LX means 60
IV means 4
900+60+4=964

On the title page of a book is given the date MDCCCLXXXVI
M DCCC LXXX VI (break into levels of 1000s, 100s, 10s, and 1s)
M means 1,000
DCCC means 800
LXXX means 80
VI means 6
1,000+800+80+6=1,886 or the year 1886

Converting from Arabic to Roman Numerals

To convert from Arabic to Roman numerals, follow the same process in raverse order.


Handy Roman Numerals Converter